>SC3: 3D (CT) X-ray for Electronics

SC3 title

3D (CT) X-ray for Electronics

SC3 Duration

09.00-13.30. Refreshment break 11.00-11.30

SC3 instructor

Dr. David Bernard

X-ray Consultant for the Electronics Industry, Watford, U.K.

SC3 instructor credentials

Dr. David Bernard graduated in Chemical Physics in 1985 from The University of Sussex in Brighton, U.K. and received his D.Phil., also in Chemical Physics, from the same institution in 1988. His subsequent career has been involved with Product Management, Technical Sales and Marketing of scientific capital equipment. For almost the last 20 years, he has been involved with the use of X-ray inspection in electronics applications. During this time, he wrote the book ‘a practical guide to X-ray inspection criteria and common defect analysis’ in addition to authoring many other technical articles and white papers on the subject which he has presented at international conferences. Prior to working in the electronics industry, he was involved with surface analysis equipment and radiation safety instrumentation.

SC3 objective

2D X-ray inspection to investigate optically hidden flaws in electronics has been a long-established part of the manufacturing process. However, as electronics have developed to contain ever-shrinking feature sizes, comprise of double-sided boards and have multi-layer (3D) advanced packages, it now means that simple 2D X-ray inspection may not be sufficient for analysis on its own. A 2D X-ray image shows all the features, at all the levels, at the same time but a defect may be obscured by other objects. Therefore, being able to use 3D X-ray techniques that non-destructively separate out individual layers and de-clutter the image for optimum analysis have become increasingly important.


This course will introduce, and explain in detail, the two 3D (CT) X-ray inspection techniques that are available for analysing electronics.  These are known as ‘full CT’ (FCT) and partial CT (PCT). PCT is also sometimes referred to as limited-angle CT. The course will also cover the relative strengths and differences of these two approaches by considering how they are used in both in-line and off-line X-ray systems and how these CT techniques may be added / included to existing test and failure analysis procedures.

SC3 outline

·      Basics of 2D X-ray

·      The methodology of the full CT technique (FCT)

·      The methodology of the Partial CT technique (PCT)

·      The strengths and differences between these two 3D X-ray techniques for electronics applications

·      The differences between in-line and off-line X-rays systems used for 3D X-ray and their impact on workflow 

       speed and analytical quality

·      How 3D (CT) X-ray can be optimized within the manufacturing process

SC3 target audience

#Process Engineers, #Process Managers, #Operations Managers, #Technical Directors, #Technical Engineers, #Technical Managers, #Failure Analysis Engineers, #Laboratory Technicians, #Quality Engineers, #Quality Managers